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Canine Parvovirus- FAQs

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What causes parvovirus infection?
Parvo, or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV) infection appeared for the first time among dogs in Europe around 1976. CPV had spread unchecked by 1978, causing a worldwide epidemic. The virus that causes this disease is very similar to feline panleukopenia (feline distemper) and the two diseases are almost identical. CPV probably arose as the result of 2 or 3 genetic mutations in feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) that allowed it to expand its host range to infect dogs.

How does a dog become infected with parvovirus?

The main source of the virus is from the feces of infected dogs. Susceptible dogs become infected by direct dog-to-dog contact or contact with contaminated feces, environments, or people. Even trace amounts of feces from an infected dog may harbor the virus and infect other dogs that come into the infected environment.

What are the clinical signs of CPV?

A dog infected with canine parvovirus will start to show symptoms within three to seven days of infection. The most common clinical signs associated with CPV include:
– Lethargy
– Depression
– Loss or lack of appetite
– Fever
– Vomiting
– Diarrhea (often bloody)
– Dehydration

The severity of CPV cases varies. The stress of weaning can lead to a more severe case of CPV in puppies, as stress weakens the immune system. A combination of CPV and a secondary infection or a parasite can also lead to a more severe case in puppies. Most deaths from parvovirus occur within 48 to 72 hours following the onset of clinical signs. If your puppy or dog shows any of these signs, you should contact your veterinarian immediately.

How is CPV diagnosed?

Parvovirus infection is often suspected based on the dog's history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Fecal testing can confirm the diagnosis. Currently, the most common and most convenient method of testing for the presence of CPV is the fecal rapid tests or ELISA tests in a clinical setting. The test requires a fecal swab and takes about 10 minutes. While this test is accurate, a negative result does not necessarily rule out parvovirus in a symptomatic dog, as they may not be shedding the viral antigen at the time of testing. Further testing, such as PCR, may be needed in these cases.

A simple measure of white blood cell count is often the clincher for a CPV diagnosis. Because one of the first things the parvovirus infects is the bone marrow, a low white blood cell count can be suggestive of CPV infection. If a dog has both a positive rapid test reading and a low white blood cell count, a fairly confident diagnosis of CPV may be made.

What are the treatment options for CPV infection?

There is no treatment to kill the virus once it infects the dog. Treatment options for dogs suffering from CPV involve supportive care and management of symptoms. Treatment options will vary, depending on how sick the dog is, but certain aspects are considered vital for all patients.

– Fluid therapy- counteract dehydration and electrolyte loss
– Antibiotic treatment- prevent potentially fatal body-wide bacterial infection if intestinal 
   bacteria have entered the bloodstream
– Antiemetic treatment- control vomiting
– Nutritional support
– Others- antiviral treatments, pain management, or blood transfusion

Can CPV be prevented?

Young puppies are very susceptible to infection, particularly because the natural immunity provided in their mothers' milk may wear off before the puppies' own immune systems are mature enough to fight off infection. The best method of protecting dogs against CPV infection is proper vaccination. Puppies receive a parvovirus vaccination as part of their multiple-agent vaccine series. These shots are given every 3 to 4 weeks from the time a puppy is between 6 to 8 weeks old until he is at least 16 weeks of age. A booster vaccination is recommended one year later, and then at one to three year intervals thereafter.

How can I kill the virus in the environment?

The virus can contaminate kennel surfaces, food and water bowls, collars and leashes, and the hands and clothing of people who handle infected dogs. It is resistant to heat, cold, humidity, and drying, and can survive in the environment for long periods of time. The stability of the CPV in the environment makes it important to properly disinfect contaminated areas. CPV can be inactivated by bleach. Cleaning with a solution of one part bleach mixed with approximately 30 parts water is an acceptable method for disinfecting any indoor area (including bedding, food/water bowls, and all surfaces) that once housed an infected dog.

Webinar: Parvovirus Infection in Dogs- A Complete Overview

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A free online class brought to you by Bioguard

Get familiar with the cause, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of canine parvovirus. Sponsored by Bioguard Corporation and presented by Indira Putri Negari, DVM, PhD, this is the next webinar you don't want to miss it.

Access to the on-demand recording is FREE
Obtain a CERTIFICATE of attendance

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March 29

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8 PM – 9 PM

Taipei Local Time


Canine parvovirus (CPV) is among the most common causes of gastrointestinal illness, especially in young puppies and unvaccinated dogs. CPV is resistant to temperature & pH changes and to common disinfectants & detergents, helping it to survive for months to years in the environment. CPV infections lead to high morbidity and mortality rates in young dogs worldwide. This makes it essential for veterinarians and pet owners to understand the cause, symptoms, and complications of the disease to take the proper curative action.

This webinar will discuss the following:
• The cause and clinical signs of CPV infection in dogs
• Tests and diagnoses of CPV
• Treatment and prevention measures


Dr. Indira received her DVM degree from Gadjah Mada University in Indonesia, and completed her doctoral degree research in Biomedical Sciences and Engineering from National Central University, Taiwan. She has expertise in microbiology, immunology, and molecular biology. Currently, Dr. Indira works as a diagnostic specialist with Bioguard Corporation (Taiwan).

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Certificate of Attendance

eCertificate will be issued to the registered attendants joining the webinar for at least 50 minutes.

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Follow our Facebook page and join us live during the webinar.

Option 3: Watch at your LEISURE

Registering to attend this webinar will also gain you access to the on-demand recording, which will be available 24 hours later.


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Beagle: Breeds and their Related Health Issues

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Beagle is a breed of small-sized dogs that is similar in appearance to the much larger foxhound. Possessing a great sense of smell and superior tracking instincts, they were developed primarily for hunting hares (beagling). Nowadays, they are one of the primary breeds used as detection dogs for prohibited agricultural imports and foodstuffs in quarantine worldwide.

Overall, Beagles are small, hardy hounds. They have a short coat, a deep chest, stocky legs, and a medium-length tail. Their heads are long compared to their bodies, with low-set drooping ears. Big brown or hazel eyes are set well apart and gaze with the typical, soft hound expression. Their standard coat is tricolored with white, black, and brown. It is a loving, sweet, and gentle, happy to see everyone by greeting them with a wagging tail. It is sociable, brave, and intelligent. The Beagle is excellent with children and generally good with other dogs, but because of its hunting instincts, it should not be trusted with non-canine pets, unless socialized with cats and other household animals when young. Beagles have minds of their own. They are determined and watchful and require patient, firm training.

1.Back Problems: Intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) is a common condition in Beagles. The disease is caused when the jelly-like cushion between one or more vertebrae slips or ruptures, causing the disc to press on the spinal cord. If your dog is suddenly unable or unwilling to jump up, go upstairs, is reluctant to move around, has a hunched back, cries out, or refuses to eat or go potty, he is likely in severe pain. He may even drag his back feet or be suddenly paralyzed and unable to get up or use his back legs. If you see symptoms, don’t wait. Call an emergency clinic immediately!

2.Eye problems: Beagles are prone to numerous eye conditions. These can range from small eyes (microphthalmia) to cataracts, glaucoma, and retinal problems called progressive retinal atrophy. They also get a prolapse of the third eyelid gland (cherry eye), which appears as a red membrane over the eye. Any time your pet has eye discharge, redness, or is pawing at one of its eyes, and examination should be performed.

3.Bleeding disorder: On occasion, some Beagles can get a bleeding disorder. If your pet easily bruises or seems to take a long time to clot blood, it should have an examination. Beagles are susceptible to herniated discs. Any time it shows signs of pain or inability to walk properly, this disease might be a cause.

4.Epilepsy: is another relatively common problem in Beagles, this disease manifests itself as a seizure. Any time your pet has a seizure it should be brought to our attention.

5.Heart disease: Beagles are prone to multiple types of heart disease. Symptoms, if they occur, include distended abdomen, difficulty breathing, exercise intolerance, and unfortunately, even sudden death.

6.Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s): Cushing’s disease is a malfunction of the adrenal glands causing them to produce too much steroid hormone. This is a common problem in dogs, and Beagles are more likely than other dogs to be affected. The condition usually develops slowly, and the early signs are easily missed. Symptoms include drinking and urinating more than normal, increased appetite, and reduced activity level. Later, a potbelly, thin skin, and hair loss are characteristic. Treatment usually includes oral medications and requires close coordination to ensure correct dosing.

FHV Ag/ FCV Ag Combo Test: detection of viral-induced upper respiratory tract disease in cats

If you notice that your cat is frequently pawing at their eyes, mouth, and nose or making choking sounds while breathing or having trouble swallowing, these could be beginning signs of upper respiratory infections.

Bioguard provides the best diagnostic solution to identify the most common feline upper respiratory disease-causing agents: Feline Herpesvirus (FHV-1) and Feline Calicivirus (FCV).

This FHV Ag/ FCV Ag Combo Test is a sandwich lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for enabling the simplicity of rapidly testing or detecting the FHV Ag and FCV Ag in ocular/nasal secretion.

To know more about this product, contact us directly at [email protected]

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About Bioguard Corporation

The Bioguard is a company focusing on animal disease diagnostic services and products.
Our animal health diagnostic center is the first and only ISO/ IEC 17025 accredited animal disease testing laboratory in Taiwan and China.

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